Tobacco consumption higher in rural areas of dist Tobacco consumption higher in rural areas of dist One in every 25 Coimbatorians consumes tobacco in some form or the other, according to a recent survey done by the Adyar Cancer Institute.
Predictor variables included in logistic regression: Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that examined tobacco knowledge and sociodemographic predictors of tobacco use in the rural regions of Gujarat, India.
Our findings confirm overall prevalence of Furthermore, the smokeless tobacco consumption 9. It can be definitely speculated that the lower prevalence rates in our study may be due to underreporting due to social desirability as the Tobacco consumption in rural india health workers live in their communities.
Furthermore, assessments of their tobacco use were part of an overall survey questionnaire that asked about behavioral and environmental risk factors for chronic conditions. Hence, there could be additional subjective bias towards more social desirable answers.
Other factors that could be accounted for a lower prevalence rate are as follows: Additionally, the variation in our results to reported prevalence may be due to the differences in participants' age; that is, individuals, 15 years old and older, were included in GATS survey while participants were adults, 18 years of age and older, in our study.
While differential patterns in tobacco use may exist by urban and rural areas, a large proportion of the adolescents below the age of 18 years use tobacco that was not captured by our study. Other probable factors for lower prevalence rates in this study might be due to our use of raw and observational data as compared to weighted sampling and multistage clustered design in larger studies such as GATS survey [ 11 ].
In addition, the GATS survey also excluded the institutionalized population and extreme remote areas from the target population.
Since this study collected data from remote and rural communities in Gujarat, our study population may have been different from other reported studies and could explain the lower overall prevalence rate among women. While our prevalence rates were lower than the statewide rate as reported in the GATS Gujarat survey and others, significant discrepancy in smoking prevalence has also been reported in various statewide tobacco surveillance studies [ 612 ].
Tobacco is used for several recreational and therapeutic reasons [ 16 — 18 ] and tobacco-based dentifrices are believed to be germicidal aiding in effective teeth cleaning while reducing pain due to dental problems [ 1920 ].
While stressors or peer pressure is noted for tobacco initiation, cultural practices that promote tobacco behavior include use for social interaction a sense of camaraderie and symbolic functions so as to celebrate wedding rituals and religious ceremonies and extending hospitality to family and friends [ 2122 ].
Hence, educational programs should be tailored to change the deep-rooted cultural beliefs and myths that tobacco aids in digestion paanacts as mouth freshener gutka, paan masalaand relieves anxiety, stress, and orodental pain. Tobacco products such as bidis, gutka, and paan masala are locally manufactured, inexpensive, and easily available in rural India.
Crude forms of tobacco are easily available and accessible, are relatively cheaper, and are used by socioeconomically disadvantaged people. However, they have more harmful health effects [ 923 ]. For example, bidis have higher concentrations of tar and carbon monoxide [ 24 ] and crude smokeless forms are highly carcinogenic contributing to increasing rates of oral cancers in India [ 25 ].
The socioeconomic burden of tobacco and related diseases is significantly higher than the contribution by the tobacco industry to government revenues [ 19 ].
Yet, aggressive marketing by transnational tobacco companies has expanded their markets and increased rates of consumption [ 26 ]. Furthermore, cultural acceptability and perceptions of safe and beneficial effects have resulted in greater use of smokeless and chewing tobacco, especially among women.
Rural females in Gujarat tend to be light users and use tobacco in the forms of snuff, gutka, and tobacco toothpaste [ 1221 ]. However, a very few female participants in this study used tobacco. Significantly lower consumption by females emphasizes the gender disparity in tobacco use in rural areas [ 27 — 30 ].
For example, Bala et al. A study in Anand District of Gujarat reported prevalence rates of The study also found higher prevalence of smokeless tobacco Lower self-reported use of tobacco, especially smokeless form among females in our study, raises concerns about a social desirable bias as mentioned earlier.
The social stigma associated with tobacco use among females in remote and rural areas may also have influenced their response [ 9 ].
Tobacco consumption was generally higher among educated and employed individuals. A differential pattern in usage, noted between the bivariate and multivariate analysis, may be due to educated and agricultural workers, who were predominantly males and had higher rates of consumption than females.
Smokeless tobacco was preferred among older men and bidis and cigarettes were preferred among younger men. A higher use of tobacco among older adults may also predispose them to chronic diseases, as it has been shown that tobacco is a modifiable risk for noncommunicable diseases for heart disease and type 2 diabetes and its complications [ 32 ]; these chronic conditions are high among Indians [ 3233 ], which is the leading cause of death and disability [ 24 ] and direct and indirect health care costs [ 24 ].
The higher rates of tobacco use among the older age groups may be due to its addictive nature after initiation and cultural acceptance of its use over time.An all-India pooled sample report suggests that a 10% increase in bidi prices could reduce rural bidi consumption by % and a 10% increase in cigarette prices could .
Tobacco consumption higher in rural areas of dist One in every 25 Coimbatorians consumes tobacco in some form or the other, according to a recent survey done by the Adyar Cancer Institute.
An all-India pooled sample report suggests that a 10% increase in bidi prices could reduce rural bidi consumption by % and a 10% increase in cigarette prices could .
Abstract. Using a nationally representative household-level dataset on consumption expenditure, this paper examines the crowding-out effects of tobacco and alcohol spending on food and non-food consumption in rural India. The consumption of cigarettes is more than that of other tobacco products in the state where there is per cent daily smokers.
Of them, per cent men smoke cigarettes, while smoking bidi.
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine.
The journal is divided into 55 subject areas. Sociodemographic Correlates of Tobacco Consumption in Rural Gujarat, India.