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Sometimes genital tissue is stitched again several times, including after childbirth, hence the woman goes through repeated opening and closing procedures, further increasing both immediate and long-term risks; psychological problems depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.
Health complications of female genital mutilation Who is at risk? Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women.
More than 3 million girls are estimated to be at risk for FGM annually. More than million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where FGM is concentrated 1.
The practice is most common in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, in some countries the Middle East and Asia, as well as among migrants from these areas. FGM is therefore a global concern. Cultural and social factors for performing FGM The reasons why female genital mutilations are performed vary from one region to another as well as over time, and include a mix of sociocultural factors within families and communities.
The most commonly cited reasons are: Where FGM is a social convention social normthe social pressure to conform to what others do and have been doing, as well as the need to be accepted socially and the fear of being rejected by the community, are strong motivations to perpetuate the practice.
In some communities, FGM is almost universally performed and unquestioned. FGM is often considered a necessary part of raising a girl, and a way to prepare her for adulthood and marriage. FGM is often motivated by beliefs about what is considered acceptable sexual behaviour.
It aims to ensure premarital virginity and marital fidelity. FGM is in many communities believed to reduce a woman's libido and therefore believed to help her resist extramarital sexual acts.
When a vaginal opening is covered or narrowed type 3the fear of the pain of opening it, and the fear that this will be found out, is expected to further discourage extramarital sexual intercourse among women with this type of FGM.
Where it is believed that being cut increases marriageability, FGM is more likely to be carried out. FGM is associated with cultural ideals of femininity and modesty, which include the notion that girls are clean and beautiful after removal of body parts that are considered unclean, unfeminine or male.
Though no religious scripts prescribe the practice, practitioners often believe the practice has religious support. Religious leaders take varying positions with regard to FGM: Local structures of power and authority, such as community leaders, religious leaders, circumcisers, and even some medical personnel can contribute to upholding the practice.
In most societies, where FGM is practised, it is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation. In some societies, recent adoption of the practice is linked to copying the traditions of neighbouring groups. Sometimes it has started as part of a wider religious or traditional revival movement.
Sincegreat efforts have been made to counteract FGM, through research, work within communities, and changes in public policy. Progress at international, national and sub-national levels includes: Research shows that, if practicing communities themselves decide to abandon FGM, the practice can be eliminated very rapidly.
InWHO together with 9 other United Nations partners, issued a statement on the elimination of FGM to support increased advocacy for its abandonment, called: This statement provided evidence collected over the previous decade about the practice of FGM.
InWHO published a "Global strategy to stop health care providers from performing female genital mutilation" in collaboration with other key UN agencies and international organizations. In Decemberthe UN General Assembly adopted a resolution on the elimination of female genital mutilation.
Building on a previous report fromin UNICEF launched an updated report documenting the prevalence of FGM in 30 countries, as well as beliefs, attitudes, trends, and programmatic and policy responses to the practice globally.
The guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of the best available evidence on health interventions for women living with FGM. To ensure the effective implementation of the guidelines, WHO is developing tools for front-line health-care workers to improve knowledge, attitudes, and skills of health care providers in preventing and managing the complications of FGM.
WHO efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation focus on:Female genital mutilation is a violation of human rights 8 practice reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women.
Female. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice that involves altering or injuring the female genitalia for non-medical reasons, and it is internationally recognized as a human rights violation. Globally, it is estimated that million girls and women alive today have undergone some form of FGM.
The European Parliament adopted a resolution on female genital mutilation calling for measures to protect survivors of the practice and urging member states to recognize the right to asylum for women and girls at risk of being subject to FGM.
The law prohibiting female genital mutilation (FGM) and the awareness-raising campaigns that accompanied it throughout the country have contributed to reducing this practice.
Nonetheless, in some regions, FGM persists, notably in the northeast of the country where, according to UNICEF in , almost 58% of women were estimated to have.
The World Health Organization describes female genital mutilation as a “violation of human rights:” Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The procedure has no health benefits for girls and women. Procedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, as.